Pituitary tumour is an abnormal cellular growth in the pituitary gland located in the brain. Pituitary gland releases hormones that act directly on the body tissues and regulates the production of hormones from other glands such as thyroid and adrenal gland. Thus, pituitary tumours lead to overproduction of one or more hormones causing conditions such as hyperthyroidism, gigantism, Cushing’s syndrome and abnormal discharge from the nipples of the breasts. As they grow they may put pressure on the optic nerve affecting vision. Their diagnosis is thus made based on endocrine function test for cortisol, follicle stimulating hormone, insulin growth factor-1, luteinizing hormone, serum prolactin, testosterone and thyroid hormone levels. The diagnosis is further confirmed by MRI of the head.
Most of these tumours are non-cancerous and do not spread to other areas of the body. The treatment involves radiation, medications and surgery as monotherapy or combination therapy. The surgery is essential when the tumour is pressing the optic nerve and may cause blindness. Most of these tumours are removed through nose and sinus without external incision using endoscopic trans nasal trans sphenoidal approach. However, in case the tumour is big it is removed through the incision in the skull (transcranial approach).